Christoph Kudella

“The Correspondence Network of Desiderius Erasmus. New Perspectives through Historical Network Research”

1. In short:

Project description : Analysis of the epistolary exchange of Desiderius Erasmus as an ego-centered, multiplex network, using a combination of

formal, i. e. quantitative methods of network analysis, including geospatial and temporal data.
methods of qualitative content analysis, which stem from media and communication theory
Key Digital Aspects:

Database-driven
Dynamic Data Visualization and Analysis via Gephi
Expected Outcomes :

Exploration of (a) the structures, (b) the dynamics and (c) the functions of the correspondence network of Erasmus

+ Searchable Online-Database of the epistolary exchange

2. In length (incl. funding poetry)

In recent years, theories and methods of ‘Social Network Analysis’ (SNA) have been increasingly applied to all subsections of historical research.[1] These approaches did not only put an end to the widespread metaphorical use of the term ‘network’ as a description for almost every possible social relationship, but also offered new perspectives on the social embeddedness of historic actors and on the linkage between structure and agency[2].

One major research field of historical network research is the study of epistolary exchange in the early modern age.[3] Especially the scholarly networks (of correspondence) of the respublica litteraria (ca 1500-1800) have drawn much attention to network-analytical approaches, as shown by projects like ‘Cultures of Knowledge’ (Oxford) or ‘Circulation of Knowledge’ (Descartes Centre, Utrecht). The appeal of network analytic methods for exploring correspondence networks can be explained by two facts: First, individual early modern scholarly correspondence can easily amount up to thousands of letters. The methods of network analysis provide adequate opportunities to explore such huge corpora of sources in a quantitative way, transcending traditional methods such as simple numeration of letters. Second, the combination of quantitative and relational prosopographic data, especially in visualized forms, opens up new perspectives on the dynamic structures of such networks as well as on the relationships between its actors. In turn, this allows not only for a new examination and re-evaluation of older research, but also for the formulation of new interpretations.

It is significant that most research in this field is focused on the 17th and 18th century. However, the epistolary exchange of renaissance humanism has been heavily neglected when it comes to network analytical approaches. To date, historical science seems to be satisfied with stating the existence of correspondence networks in 15th and 16th century Europe without spending much effort in exploring the structures of such networks, their dynamics and their functions. A look at the state of research on the great humanist Desiderius Erasmus confirms that impression: his vast correspondence[4] has been, so far, mined repeatedly for biographical data and for his views on specific subjects[5]. This tradition dates back to the beginning of the 18th century, when the edition of Erasmus’ Opera omnia (LB) by Jean Leclerc laid the foundation for historical research on Erasmus. The groundbreaking study Life and Letters of Erasmus, published by J. A. Frouden in 1893, relied predominantly on the Leclerc edition and shaped especially the Anglo-Saxon view on this humanist. Only a few years later, with the publishing of the first two volumes of the Opus epistolarum (Allen) by J. P. Allen in 1906 and 1910, historical research on Erasmus entered a new phase. The Allen edition of the epistolary exchange yielded new biographies, beginning with P. Smith (1926) and J. Huizinga (1928). Since 1945, an increasing interest in Erasmus as a research subject can be observed in international humanities, especially in Anglo-Saxon[6] countries and Western Europe[7]. Within this context, Erasmus has come to much sharper shape as a theologian and a rhetorician[8]. The critical re-edition of the epistolary exchange in Amsterdam (ASD, 1969 ongoing) as well as the English translation Collected Works of Erasmus (CWE, 1974 ongoing) has yielded again new biographies, among others by R. H. Bainton, C. Augustijn, L. Halkin, R. J. Schoeck, C. Christ-von Wedel and W. Ribhegge. These biographies as well as the numerous studies on specific aspects of Erasmus works hold in common, that the correspondence has been treated highly eclectic. In contrast, a network analytic approach to his epistolary exchange on the whole is, in my opinion, not only a pressing but also a highly promising desideratum.

Therefore, my project aims at studying the correspondence network of Desiderius Erasmus as an ego-centered, multiplex network, using a combination of formal, i. e. quantitative methods of network analysis and methods of qualitative content analysis, which stem from media and communication theory:

As a first step, I intend to examine the dynamic structure of and the relationships within the correspondence network. Leading questions: (1) How did the correspondence network emerge in time and space? (2) Which different types of ‘links’ (relationships) between Erasmus and his individual correspondents can be distinguished? Method: (1) Capturing of relational data based on (a) the epistolary edition by Allen and (b) on the Toronto and Brussels edition (since those two include supplementary letters) in a relational database. The following data will be captured: who wrote to whom when and where; direction of letters (question of symmetry/asymmetry respectively reciprocity); number of letters per recipient (question of scale); formal and informal institutional affiliations. (2) Classification of the socio-professional background of Erasmus’ correspondents using prosopographic data provided by the biographical handbook ‘Contemporaries of Erasmus’. (3) Classification of the relationship(s) between Erasmus and his individual correspondents beyond epistolary contact, e.g. based on a modified classificatory system of ‘entanglement’ (‘Verflechtung’) developed by W. Reinhard. At this juncture, attention has to be paid to the possibility of multiplexity as well as to shifts from one type of relationship to another. (4) Mapping of the emergence of the correspondence network in time and space by creating network maps and geographical maps on the basis of this database, followed by interpretation. Possible valuable Insights: (1) The scale and evolution of the socio-professional composition of the network as well as the influence of certain socio-professional backgrounds on epistolary exchange. (2) The significance of various types of relationships and their possible shifts towards the epistolary contact (e.g. constitution, abandonment, frequency of epistolary exchange). (3) The significance of change of residence by Erasmus and/or a correspondent on the development of the network on the whole as well as on interpersonal relations (cf. 2)

Possible intermediate step: A comparison of the ‘Erasmus network’ with other fitting ego-centered networks of epistolary exchange, e.g. Guillaume Budé[9] and Philipp Melanchton[10] in order to gain insights in correlations.

As a second step, I intend to examine the types of function and of benefits of the correspondence network. Leading question: (1) What types of function of the network can be distinguished and which benefits did participation in the network render to its participants? That is, which flow of resources (information/knowledge [Lévi-Strauss/Burke] – material gifts – forms of capital [Bourdieu]) and processes of transformation took place within the network? Method: (1) Classification of the individual letters by communicative functions(s), e.g. using methods of content analysis developed by R. Nickisch[11] (emotion, influence, information, services/gifts), taking at the same time contemporary specifics of humanist letter writing into account. (2) Classification of the individual letters by theme, using keywords (persons, places, works etc.) which have to be elaborated by means of the correspondence. (3) Visualization of this data as network maps, filtered by communicative functions and themes, followed by interpretation. Possible valuable insights: (1) What kind of exchange and/or transformation of resources took place between which actors (or groups) and when? (2) Which themes were restricted to certain circles of correspondents? (3) When did certain themes appear and disappear? When were they widely distributed through the network and when were they constricted to specific channels.

Possible additional step: A comparison of the ‘real’ network with the image rendered by the different (partial) epistolary editions published by Erasmus himself. Possible valuable insights: (1) The shaping of his self-image and scholarly habitus [Bourdieu] (2) the secrecy of certain correspondences (3) the editing/omission of certain themes.

Beyond the drafting of a PhD thesis on the sketched subject I intend to further enrich scholarship on Desiderius Erasmus by the creation of an online database of his epistolary exchange, which will be based on the ‘work bench’ dataset of the dissertation, approximately comprising 3.200 items. This online database will allow users to conduct specific queries such as ‘how many letters where exchanged between specified places in a given time range’ or ‘which themes occurred in the letters of a specific period’.

Appendix A – Sources

Erasmus, Desiderius 1906-1958. Opus epistolarum Des. Erasmi Roterodami denuo recognitum et actum,ed. by Percy S. Allen. 12 vol. Oxford: Clarendon.

Erasmus, Desiderius 1963. The Cambridge Letters of Erasmus: Translated by D. F. S. Thompson. Introduction, Commentary and Notes by H. C. Porter. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press.

Erasmus, Desiderius 1967-1984. Correspondance d’Erasme, ed. by Aloïs Gerlo. 12 vol. Brussels: Univ. Press.

Erasmus, Desiderius 1974-2010. Collected Works of Erasmus. The correspondence of Erasmus, ed. by diff. scholars. 13 vol. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press [ongoing].

Appendix B – Bibliography

B.1 – Historical Network Research – Surveys

Boyer, Christoph 2008. Netzwerke und Geschichte : Netzwerktheorien und Geschichts­wissenschaften, in Unfried, Berthold (Ed.): Transnationale Netzwerke im 20. Jahrhundert: Historische Erkundungen zu Ideen und Praktiken, Individuen und Organisationen: = Transnational Networks in the 20th Century. Leipzig: AVA. (ITH-Tagungsberichte, 42), 47–58.

Brudner, Lilyan & White, Douglas 1997. Class, Property and Structural Endogamy: Visualizing Networked Histories. Theory and Society 26(2-3), 161–208.

Erickson, Bonnie H. 1997. Social Networks and History: A Review Essay. Historical Methods 30(3), 149–157.

Fangerau, Heiner 2009. Der Austausch von Wissen und die rekonstruktive Visualisierung formeller und informeller Denkkollektive, in Fangerau, Heiner & Halling, Thorsten (Ed.): Netzwerke : allgemeine Theorie oder Universalmetapher in den Wissenschaften? Bielefeld: transcript Verl., 215–246.

Gersmann, Gudrun 1997. Von den Netzwerken des 18. Jahrhunderts zum Internet: Kulturtransfer und neue Medien, in Lüsebrink, Hans-Jürgen (Ed.): Kulturtransfer im Epochenumbruch Frankreich – Deutschland 1770 bis 1815: Vol. 1. Leipzig: Leipziger Univ.-Verl. (Deutsch-französische Kulturbibliothek, 9,1), 139–142.

Häberlein, Mark 2008. Netzwerkanalyse und historische Elitenforschung: Probleme, Erfahrungen und Ergebnisse am Beispiel der Reichsstadt Augsburg, in Dauser, Regina, Hächler, Stefan & Kempe, Michael (Ed.): Wissen im Netz: Botanik und Pflanzentransfer in europäischen Korrespondenznetzen des 18. Jahrhunderts. Berlin: Akademie Verlag GmbH. (Colloquia Augustana, 24), 315–328.

Lemercier, Claire 2005. Analyse de réseaux et histoire. Revue d’histoire moderne et contemporaine 52(2), 88–112.

Lemercier, Claire 2009. Formal Network Methods in History: Why and How? URL: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00521527/fr/.

Lemercier, Claire & Zalc, Claire 2008. Méthodes quantitatives pour l’historien. Paris: La Découverte.

Neurath, Wolfgang & Krempel, Lothar 2008. Geschichtswissenschaft und Netzwerkanalyse: Potentiale und Beispiele, in Unfried, Berthold (Ed.): Transnationale Netzwerke im 20. Jahrhundert: Historische Erkundungen zu Ideen und Praktiken, Individuen und Organisationen: = Transnational Networks in the 20th Century. Leipzig: AVA. (ITH-Tagungsberichte, 42), 59–79.

Reitmayer, Morten & Marx, Christian 2010. Netzwerkansätze in der Geschichtswissenschaft, in Stegbauer, Christian & Häußling, Roger (Ed.): Handbuch Netzwerkforschung. Wiesbaden: Verl. für Sozialwiss. (Netzwerkforschung, 4), 869–880.

Wasserman, Stanley & Faust, Katherine 2009. Social Network Analysis: Methods and Applications. 19. printing. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (Structural analysis in the social sciences, 8).

Wetherell, Charles 1998. Historical Social Network Analysis. International Review of Social History 43(Supplement 6), 125–144.

B.2 – Historical Network Research – Applications

B.2.A – Ancient History

Alexander, Michael C. & Danowski, James A. 1990. Analysis of an Ancient Network: Personal Communication and the Study of Social Structure in a Past Society. Social Networks 12(4), 313–335.

Malkin, Irad 2011. A Small Greek World: Networks in the Ancient Mediterranean. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Rollinger, Christian 2009. “Solvendi sunt nummi”: Die Schuldenkultur der Späten Römischen Republik im Spiegel der Schriften Ciceros. Berlin: Verl. Antike.

Ruffini, Giovanni 2008. Social Networks in Byzantine Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

B.2.B – Medieval and Renaissance History

Müller, Jörg R. 2008. Beziehungsnetze aschkenasischer Juden während des Mittelalters und der frühen Neuzeit. Hannover: Hahn. (Forschungen zur Geschichte der Juden. Abt. A, Abhandlungen, 20).

Padgett, John F. & Ansell, Christopher K. 1993. Robust Action and the Rise of the Medici. The American Journal of Sociology 98(6), 1259–1319.

Teuscher, Simon 1998. Bekannte, Klienten, Verwandte: Soziabilität und Politik in der Stadt Bern um 1500. Köln: Böhlau. (Norm und Struktur, 9).

B.2.C – Early Modern History

Barkey, Karen & van Rossem, Ronan 1997. Networks of Contention : Villages and Regional Structures in the Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Empire. The American Journal of Sociology 102(5), 1345–1382.

Brakensiek, Stefan 1999. Fürstendiener – Staatsbeamte – Bürger: Amtsführung und Lebenswelt der Ortsbeamten in niederhessischen Kleinstädten (1750 – 1830). Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. (Bürgertum, 12).

Casey, James 2007. Family and community in early modern Spain: The citizens of Granada, 1570 – 1739. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Guzzi-Heeb, Sandro 2010. Revolte und soziale Netzwerke: Mechanismen der politischen Mobilisierung in einem alpinen Tal des 18. Jahrhunderts. Geschichte und Gesellschaft 36(4), 497–522.

Häberlein, Mark 1998. Brüder, Freunde und Betrüger: Soziale Beziehungen, Normen und Konflikte in der Augsburger Kaufmannschaft um die Mitte des 16. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Akad.-Verl. (Colloquia Augustana, 9).

Marshall, Rosalind K. 2006. Queen Mary’s Women: Female Relatives, Servants, Friends and Enemies of Mary, Queen of Scots. Edinburgh: Donald.

Pieper, Renate 2000. Die Vermittlung einer neuen Welt: Amerika im Nachrichtennetz des Habsburgischen Imperiums 1493 – 1598. Mainz: von Zabern. (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte Mainz, 163).

Reinhard, Wolfgang 1979. Freunde und Kreaturen: “Verflechtung” als Konzept zur Erforschung historischer Führungsgruppen: Römische Oligarchie um 1600. München: Vögel. (Schriften der Philosophischen Fachbereiche der Universität Augsburg, 14).

Russell, Gillian & Tuite, Clara (Ed.) 2002. Romantic Sociability: Social Networks and Literary Culture in Britain, 1770 – 1840. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Shepard, Alexandra & Withington, Phil (Ed.) 2000. Communities in early modern England: Networks, place, rhetoric. Manchester: Manchester Univ. Press. URL: http://www.gbv.de/dms/goettingen/319393224.pdf.

Tilly, Charles 1997. Parliamentarization of Popular Contention in Great Britain, 1758-1834. Theory and Society 26(2-3), 245–273.

Zürn, Martin 1998. “Ir aigen libertet”: Waldburg, Habsburg und der bäuerliche Widerstand an der oberen Donau 1590 – 1790. Tübingen: Bibliotheca-Academica-Verl. (Oberschwaben – Geschichte und Kultur, 2).

B.2.D – Modern and Contemporary History

Eumann, Ulrich & März, Jascha 2010. Netzwerke des Widerstands in Köln 1933-1945: Forschungsprojekt. The International Newsletter of Communist Studies Online 16(23), 37–41. URL: http://newsletter.icsap.de/home/data/pdf/INCS_23_ONLINE.pdf.

Feldman, Gerald D. & Seibel, Wolfgang (Ed.) 2005. Networks of Nazi Persecution: Bureaucracy, Business and the Organization of the Holocaust. Oxford: Berghahn Books.

Kuper, Adam 2009. Incest & Influence: The Private Life of Bourgeois England. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press.

Lemercier, Claire & Rosental, Paul-André 2009. The Structure and Dynamics of Migration Patterns in 19th-Century Northern France. URL: http://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00450035/fr/.

Lipp, Carola & Krempel, Lothar 2001. Petitions and the Social Context of Political Mobilization in the Revolution of 1848/49, in van Heerma Voss, Lex (Ed.): Petitions in social history. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (International review of social history. Supplement, 9), 151–170.

Osa, Maryjane 2003. Solidarity and Contention: Networks of Polish Opposition. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Rosenthal, Naomi, et al. 1985. Social Movements and Network Analysis : A Case Study of Nineteenth-Century Women’s Reform in New York State. The American Journal of Sociology 90, 1022–1054.

B.2.E – History of Science

Hächler, Stefan 2002. Deux réseaux de correspondance en interaction: La correspondance entre Albert de Haller (1708–1777) et Carlo Allioni (1728–1804), in Beaurepaire, Pierre-Yves (Ed.): La plume et la toile: Pouvoirs et réseaux de correspondance dans l’Europe des Lumières. Arras: Artois Presses Université, 253–272.

Hummon, Norman P. & Doreian, Patrick 1989. Connectivity in a Citation Network: The Development of DNA Theory. Social Networks 11, 39–63.

Steinbrink, Malte, et al. Netzwerk(analys)e in der deutschen Humangeographie. URL: http://www.raumnachrichten.de/diskussionen/1162-humangeographie.

Stuber, Martin (Ed.) 2005. Hallers Netz: Ein europäischer Gelehrtenbriefwechsel zur Zeit der Aufklärung. Basel: Schwabe. (Studia Halleriana, 9).

White, Douglas & McCann, H. G. 1998. Cites and Fights: Material Entailment Analysis of the eighteenth-Century Chemical Revolution, in Wellman, Barry & Berkowitz, Steven (Ed.): Social Structures: A Network Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. (Structural Analysis in the Social Sciences, 2), 380–400.

B.2.F – Economic History

Burkhardt, Mike 2009. Der hansische Bergenhandel im Spätmittelalter: Handel, Kaufleute, Netzwerke. Köln: Böhlau. (Quellen und Darstellungen zur Hansischen Geschichte, 60).

Edwards, Jeremy S. & Ogilvie, Sheilagh C. 2008. Contract enforcement, institutions and social capital: The Maghribi traders reappraised. München: Center for Economic Studies. (CESifo working paper series : Empirical and theoretical methods, 2254)

Fertig, Georg 2005. Zwischen Xenophobie und Freundschaftspreis: Landmarkt und familiäre Beziehungen in Westfalen, 1830-1866. Jahrbuch für Wirtschaftsgeschichte (1), 53–76.

Lesger, Clé 2006. The Rise of the Amsterdam Market and Information Exchange: merchants, commercial expansion and Change in the Spatial Economy of the Low Countries c. 1550 – 1630. Aldershot: Ashgate.

Poensgen, Ruprecht 1998. Die Familie Anchorena 1750 – 1875: Handel und Viehwirtschaft am Rio de la Plata zwischen Vizekönigreich und Republik. Köln: Böhlau. (Lateinamerikanische Forschungen, 26).

Reupke, Daniel 2011. Finanzkrise historisch – Kreditnetzwerke in der SaarLorLux-Region während der Krisenszenarien des 19. Jahrhunderts, in Wolfgang, Kurt (Ed.): Krisen und Schulden: Interdisziplinäre Perspektiven zu Bewältigungsstrategien aus Geschichte und Gegenwart. Wiesbaden.

Reupke, Daniel & Clemens, Gabriele B. 2008. Kreditvergabe im 19. Jahrhundert zwischen privaten Netzwerken und institutioneller Geldleihe, in Clemens, Gabriele B. (Ed.): Schuldenwert und Schuldenlast: Kreditnetzwerke in der europäischen Geschichte, 1300 – 1900. Trier: Kliomedie. (Trierer historische Forschungen, 65), 193–220.

Reupke, Daniel & Clemens, Gabriele B. 2009. Der Notar als Broker: Das Management des privaten Kreditmarkts. Zeitschrift für Verbraucher- und Privatinsolvenzrecht 8 (12), 16–22.

Roy, Tirthankar 2010. Company of kinsmen: Enterprise and community in south Asian history, 1700-1940. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Schnurmann, Claudia 2002. Die Rekonstruktion eines atlantischen Netzwerks – das Beispiel Jakob Leislers (1660-1691): Ein Editionsprojekt. Jahrbuch für Europäische Überseegeschichte 2, 19–39.

Schulte Beerbühl, Margrit & Vögele, Jörg (Ed.) 2004. Spinning the commercial web: International trade, merchants, and commercial cities, c. 1640 – 1939. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.

Selzer, Stephan & Ewert, Ulf C. 2001. Verhandeln und verkaufen, Vernetzen und Vertrauen: Über die Netzwerkstruktur des hansischen Handels. Hansische Geschichtsblätter 119, 135–161.

Smith, David A. & White, Douglas 1992. Structure and Dynamics of the Global Economy: Network Analysis of International Trade 1965-1980. Social Forces 70 (4), 857–893.

Snyder, David & Kick, Edward L. 1979. Structural Position in the World System and Economic Growth, 1955-1970: A Multiple-Network Analysis of Transnational Interactions. The American Journal of Sociology 84 (5), 1096–1126.

Weber, Klaus 2004. Deutsche Kaufleute im Atlantikhandel 1680 – 1830: Unternehmen und Familien in Hamburg, Cádiz und Bordeaux. München: Beck. (Schriftenreihe zur Zeitschrift für Unternehmensgeschichte, 12).

B.3.A – Research Surveys on Erasmus

Mansfield, Bruce E. 1979. Phoenix of his Age: Interpretations of Erasmus, c. 1550 – 1750. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. (Erasmus Studies, 4).

Mansfield, Bruce E. 1992. Man on His Own: Interpretations of Erasmus, c. 1750-1920. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. (Erasmus Studies, 11).

Mansfield, Bruce E. 2003. Erasmus in the Twentieth Century: Interpretations 1920-2000. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. (Erasmus Studies, 15).

B.3.B – Studies on the Correspondence of Erasmus

Bietenholz, Peter G. 1977. Erasmus and the German Public, 1518-1520: The Authorized and Unauthorized Circulation of his Correspondence. Sixteenth Century Journal 8 (2), 61–78.

Binns, J. W. 1970. The Letters of Erasmus, in Dorey, Thomas A. (Ed.): Erasmus. London: Routledge & Kegan, 55–79.

Charlier, Yvonne 1977. Erasme et l’amitié d’après sa correspondance. Paris: Les Belles Lettres. (Bibliothèque de la Faculté de philosophie et lettres de l’Université de Liège, 219).

Chomarat, Jacques 1981. Grammaire et rhétorique chez Erasme, 2 vol. Paris: Les Belles Lettres.

Cytowska, M. 1995. Erasme de Rotterdam et ses correspondents polonais, in Vanrie, André (Ed.): Miscellanea. Jean-Pierre Vanden Branden: Erasmus ab anderlaco. Brüssel: Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgiques, 381–396.

Furey, Constance M. 2006. Erasmus, Contarini, and the Religious Republic of Letters. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Gerlo, Aloïs 1978. Érasme, éditeur de sa correspondence. Bibliothèque d’humanisme et renaissance 40, 239–247.

Gerlo, Aloïs 1983. Erasmus von Rotterdam: Sein Selbstporträt in seinen Briefen, in Worstbrock, Franz J. (Ed.): Der Brief im Zeitalter der Renaissance. Weinheim: Acta Humaniora, 7–24.

Graf, Guido 1998. Die Aufhebung des Körpers durch die Schrift: Über den Briefschreiber Erasmus von Rotterdam. Neophilologus 82 (1), 1–10.

Halkin, Léon E. 1983. Erasmus ex Erasmo: Erasme, éditeur de sa correspondence. Aubel: P. M. Gason. (Livre, idées, société. Série in-8°, 3).

Heesakkers, Chris L. 2005. Erasmus Epistolographus, in Berkvens-Stevelinck, Christiane (Ed.): Les grands intermédiaires culturels de la république des lettres: Études de réseaux de correspondances du XVIe au XVIIIe siècles. Paris: Champion. (Les dix-huitièmes siècles, 91), 29–60.

Jardine, Lisa 1993. Erasmus, Man of Letters. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Pr.

La Garanderie, Marie-Madeleine de 1967. La Correspondance d’Érasme et de Guillaume Budé: Traduction intégrale, annotations et index biographique. Paris: J. Vrin. (De Pétrarque à Descartes, 13).

La Garanderie, Marie-Madeleine de 1969. Recueils parisiens de lettres d’Erasme. Bibliothèque d’humanisme et renaissance 31, 449–465.

Nauwelaerts, M. A. 1968. Les lettres d’Erasme. Didactica classica Gandensia 8, 74–81.

O’Donnel, Anne M. 1989. Sixth Annual Bainton Lecture: Contemporary Women in the Letters of Erasmus. Erasmus of Rotterdam Society Yearbook 9, 34–72.

Ribhegge, Wilhelm 1998. Erasmus und Europa: Studien zur Korrespondenz des Erasmus von Rotterdam. Zeitschrift für Historische Forschung 25 (4), 549–580.

Rouschausse, Jean (Ed.) 1968. Erasmus and Fisher: Their correspondence 1511 – 1524. Paris: J. Vrin. (De Pétrarque à Descartes, 16).

Rummel, Erika 1981. The Use of Greek in Erasmus’ Letters. Humanistica Lovaniensia 30, 55–92.

Rummel, Erika 2002. Argumentis, non cuntumeliis: The Humanistic Model for Religious Debate and Erasmus’ Apologetic Letters, in van Houdt, Toon, et al. (Ed.): Self-Presentation and Social Identification: The Rhetoric and Pragmatics of Letter Writing in Early Modern Times. Leuven: Leuven Univ. Press. (Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia, 18), 305–316.

Schalk, Fritz 1971. Erasmus und die Respublica Literaria, in Reedijk, Cornelis (Ed.): Actes du congrès d’Erasme: Rotterdam 27-29 octobre 1969. Amsterdam, 14–28.

Yoran, Hanan 2010. Between Utopia and Dystopia: Erasmus, Thomas More, and the Humanist Republic of Letters. Lanham: Lexington Books.

[1] Cf. Appendix B.2.A-F

[2] Cf. Appendix B.1

[3] In this connection, correspondence networks have been primarily treated as so called ‘ego-centered’ networks, in which epistolary contacts are explored in relationship to one focal agent (cf. the contributions in Dauser, Hächler et al. (Ed.); Stuber (Ed.) 2005; Beaurepaire (Ed.) 2002). In contrast, research on ‘multi-polar’ networks or between different networks of epistolary exchange are still very rare (For a best practice example of the latter cf. Hächler 2002 and Stuber, Hächler et al. 2008)

[4] Erasmus was one of the greatest letter writers of his time. His correspondence amounts to a total of c. 3.200 letters (from which the half has been composed by himself) and includes more than 700 correspondents of all social strata.

[5] Cf. Appendix B.3.B

[6] Including Canada, Australia and New Zealand

[7] Especially in France, the Netherlands, Belgium and Switzerland. On the contrary, research on Erasmus in Germany is (partially still as to date) in an early development state.

[8] Cf. Appendix B.3.A. For the impact of the linguistic turn on Erasmus research, cf. the studies by L. Jardine and J. Chomarat

[9] Possible data acquisition through Delaruelle, Louis 1907, Répertoire analytique et chronologique de la correspondence de Guillaume Budé. Toronto: Robarts

[10] Possible data acquisition through the Research Center ‘Melanchthon-Briefwechsel’, cf. http://www.haw.uni-heidelberg.de/forschung/forschungsstellen/melanchthon/projekt.de.html

[11] Nikisch, Reinhard 1991. Brief. Stuttgart: Metzler. (Sammlung Metzler, 260)

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